Project Horizon was an alleged continuation of the Apollo program transferred from NASA, to be carried out by the USAF as a military operation, as early as 1973. This program is a precursor to the US Space Force, directed by the DoD.
Project Horizon was a 1959 study to determine the feasibility of constructing a scientific military base on the Moon. On June 8, 1959, a group at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) produced for the Army a report titled Project Horizon, A U.S. Army Study for the Establishment of a Lunar Military Outpost. The permanent outpost was predicted to be required for national security "as soon as possible", and to cost $6 billion. The projected operational date with twelve soldiers was December 1966.
President Dwight Eisenhower rejected the project, transferring primary responsibilities for America's space program to NASA. However, by the time of the Gerald Ford administration, Project Horizon was militarily the responsibility of the USAF, as a precursor to the US space force.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program, launched on December 7, 1972. A follow up US—Soviet joint operation, ending the Space Race, was the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) that was launched July 1975.
The final three Apollo J missions: Apollo 18, Apollo 19, and Apollo 20 were resumed by the USAF under Project Horizon as militarized operations (drop the letter J), assisted by NASA. The Control center was the 30th Space Wing at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The launch site, was not conducted on base, but was situated at launch facilities south of Surf beach in a restricted NASA zone (south of Ocean blvd). All three secret Apollo missions were launched from this No-Access NASA controlled zone.
Apollo 18 was not in anyway ASTP, despite NASA history papers, but was a stand alone mission that would serve as the first, in a three part phase, to operate in the South Pole–Aitken basin on the far side of the Moon. The first lunar mission under USAF, assisted by NASA, was likely scheduled for launch, December 1973. Phase II, would be Apollo 19, likely to have launched July 1974. This mission suffered a major incident that resulted in "a loss of telemetry, a brutal end of mission without data" (there were no survivors). NASA focuses attention on US-Soviet relations for a successful ASTP in 1975. Phase III, Apollo 20—operation to recover, launches 16 August 1976, the first and only USAF lunar mission to include a cosmonaut in its crew.
Proposed timeline of eventsEdit
All launches were assisted by NASA, as well as the former Rockwell International Corp (founded in 1973). The Apollo 20 film footage shot in 16mm analogue, shows spacecraft controls and instruments that match 35mm photos of control instrumentation on the Apollo 17, that can be accessed in the Image Library of the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. Thus supporting that Apollo craft was in continued use, at least since 1973 (as determined by the Rockwell International logos), and suggestively in 1976.
The Apollo 20 mission badge, as seen in the Apollo 20 film, depicts a sarcopuhagus being mutually lifted-up by an Apollo Lunar Module and Command Service Module. The sarcopuhagus graphic on the Apollo 20 insignia supports the claim of having pre-knowledge of evidence for extraterrestrial biological entities encountered on earlier Apollo missions. The designated landing zone for Apollo 20 was in the Delporte-Izsak region, close to the Tsiolkovsky crater, on the far side of the Moon. This mission was considered successful in allegedly recovering evidence for extraterrestrial biological entities (See Mona Lisa).
|Apollo 18 | Apollo 19 | Apollo 20|
- ↑ Logsdon, John (2010). John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon. Palgrave Macmillan. Template:Citation/identifier.
- ↑ retiredafb called Apollo 18—ASTP, but he was legitimately mistaken. As early as 1997, undetermined if intentional, NASA history documents misapply Apollo 18 with ASTP ( See JSC-NASA, Oral History Project). However, historically, ASTP was not recognized as a numbered mission of the Apollo program led by NASA. The official Apollo 18 moon mission was cancelled by NASA (see Canceled Apollo missions), and yet picked up by the USAF as a secret mission under Project Horizon. It is more probable that neither Apollo 18, nor 19 were joint US—Soviet missions. Not until the success of the ASTP in mid 1975, could a remaining Apollo mission (allegedly Apollo 20) include a cosmonaut.